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CBSE Class XI / XII, 2021, 2022, 2023

Download CBSE Class XI (NCERT), 2021, 2022, 2023, Biology Syllabus (13687 Downloads so far)
BIOLOGY
COURSE STRUCTURE
CBSE XI (NCERT), 2021, 2022, 2023 (Theory)
One Paper Three Hours Max Marks. 80
Unit Titles Weightage
I Diversity in living world 07
II Structural organization in animals and plants 12
III Cell: Structure and function 15
IV Plant physiology 18
V Human Physiology 18
Total 70


UNIT I: DIVERSITY IN LIVING WORLD
What is living?
  • Concept of Biodiversity
  • Classification of the living organisms
    - Need for classification
    - Three domains of life
    - Five kingdoms of life and basis of five kingdom classification
    - Lichens
    - Virus and Virioids

    Systematics and binomial System of nomenclature
    - Taxonomy & Systematics
    - Concept os species & taxonomic heirarchy
    - Binomial nomenclature
    - Salient features of classification of Monera, Protoctista (Protista) and Fungi into major groups
    - Salient features of classification of plants into major groups: Algae, Bryophytes,Pteriodophytes, Gymnosperms and features of each category and at least two examples of each
    - Angiosperms: classification upto class, characterisation features and examples
    - Salient features of animals: Major non-chordates phyla and chordate classes. Three to five salient features and at least two examples
    - Tools for study of biodiversity: Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, botanical gardens

    UNIT II: STRUCTURAL ORGANISATION IN ANIMALS AND PLANTS
    - Tissues in animals and plants
    - Morphology including modifications, microscopic anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, Stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant Practicals of the Practcal Syllabus)
    - Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach) (Brief account only)

    UNIT III: CELL: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
    - Cell and its three major parts: Cell Membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus
    - Cell theory and the cell as the basic unit of life
    - Structure of the Prokanyotic and eucaryotic cell
    - Plant cell and animal cell (brief)
    - Cell Organelles:Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall structure and
    function: mitochondria, Golgi bodies/dictyosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, lysosomes, vacuoles, plastids, microbodies
    - Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (Ultrastructure and function)
    - Nucleus: nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus
    - Chemical constituents of living cells
    - Biomolecules: Structure and functions of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, lipids and nucleic acids
    - Enzymes: types, properties, function and enzyme action
    - Cell division: Cell cycle, significance of, and differences between Mitosis and Meiosis

    UNIT IV: PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
    Movement of water, food, nutrients and gases
    - Absorption of water, gases and nutrients
    - Cell to Cell transport
    - Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport
    - Plant-Water Relations
    - Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis
    - Long Distance Transport
    - Apoplant, symplast, root pressure, transpiration pull
    - Transportation and Guttation
    - Opening and closing of stomata
    - Role of K+ ions
    -Uptake of mineral and their translocation
    - Transportation through xylem and phloem
    -Plants and mineral nutrition
    - Essential minerals, macro- and micronutrients and their role
    - Defficiency symptoms
    - Mineral toxicity
    - Elementry idea of Hydroponics as a Method to study mineral nutrition
    - Nitrogen metabolism: Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation
    -Plants Respiration
    - Exchange of gases
    - Cellular respiration: glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic)
    - Energy Relation: Number of ATP molecules generated
    - Amphibiotic pathways
    - Respiratory quotient of nutrients
    -Photosynthesis
    - Autotropic nutrition
    - Site of photosynthesis
    - Photosynthetic pigments (Elementary idea)
    - Photosynthetic and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis
    - Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation
    - Chemismotic hypothesis
    - Phototrespiration
    - C and C pathways
    - Factors affecting photosynthesis
        - Law of Limiting Factors
    -Plant Growth and Development
    - Phases of plant growth and plant growth rate
    - Condition fo Growth
    - Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation
    - Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell
    - Growth regulators: auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA
    - Photomorphogenesis including brief account of phytochromes
    (Elementary Idea)
    - Seed germination
    - Seed dormancy
    - Vermalisation
    - Photoperiodism

    UNIT V: HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
    Digestion and Absorption
    - Human alimentary canal and Digestive glands
    - Role of digesitive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones
    - Peristalsis
    - Digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbodydrates and fats
    - Calorific value of proteins, carbodydrates and fats
    - Egestion
    - Nutritional and digestive disorders – P E M, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice

    Breathing and Respiration
    - Respiratory organts in animals (Recall only)
    - Respiratory system in humans
    - Mechanism of Breathing and its regulation in humans
    - Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration in humans
    - Respiratory volumes
    - Disorders related to respiration – Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational Respiratory disorders

    Body fluids and Circulation
    - Composition of blood, Blood groups, Coagulation of blood
    - Composition of Lymph and function
    - Human circulatory system
    - Structure of human heart and blood vessels
    - Cardiac cycle, Cardiac output, ECG
    - Double circulation
    - Regulation of cardiac activity
    - Disorders of circulatory system – Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, heart failure

    Excretory products and their elimination
    - Modes of excretion – Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism
    - Human excretory system-structure and function
    - Urine formation, Osmoregulaion
    - Regulation of kidney function, Renin-angiotensin, Antinatriuretic factor, ADH and Diabeters insipidus
    - Role of other organs in excretion
    - Disoders – Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis
    - Dialysis and artificial kidney

    Locomotion and Movement
    - Types of movement – ciliary, flagellar, muscular
    - Skeletal muscle _ contractile proteins and muscle contraction
    - Skeletal system and its functions. (to be dealt with the relvent practical of practical syllabus)
    - Joints
    - Disorders of muscular and skeletal systm – Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis Gout

    Neural control and coordination
    - Neural and nerves
    - Nervous system in humans
    - Central Nervous system, Peripheral Nervous system and Viseral Nervous system
    - Generation and conduction of nerve impulse
    - Reflex action
    - Sensory Perception
    - Elementary structure and function of eye and ear and general idea of other sense organs

    Chemical coordination and regulation
    - Endocrine glands and hormones
    - Human endocrine system – Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads
    - Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea)
    - Role of hormones as messengers and regulators
    - Hypo- and hyperactivity and related disorders, (Common disorders eg. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exopthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease)

    IMP: Diseases related to all the human physiology systems to be taught in brief.

    Recommended Textbooks
    A text book in Biology, Published by NCERT


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