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CBSE Class XI / XII, 2021, 2022, 2023

Download CBSE Class XII (NCERT), 2021, 2022, 2023, Biology Syllabus (13687 Downloads so far)

BIOLOGY
COURSE STRUCTURE
CBSE XII (NCERT), 2021, 2022, 2023 (Theory)
One Paper Three Hours Max Marks. 70
Unit Titles Weightage
6 Reproduction 14
7 Genetics and Evolution 18
8 Biology and Human Welfare 14
9 Biotechnology and its Applications 10
10 Ecology and Environment 14
Total 70


UNIT 1 REPRODUCTION

Reproduction in Organisms
Reproduction a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species. Modes of reproduction- Asexual and sexual.

  • Asexual reproduction
  • - Uniparental
    - Modes – Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation, regeneration.
    - Vegetative Propagation in plants.
    - Micropropagation.

  • Sexual reproduction in flowering plants
  • - Flower structure.
    - Development of male and female gametophytes.
    - Pollination-type-agencies and examples.
    - Outbreeding devices.
    - Pollen-Pistil interaction.
    - Double fertilization
    - Post fertilization events
    - Development of endosperm & embryo
    - Development of seed and formation of fuit.
    - Seed development
    - Fruit formation.
    - Special modes – apomixes, parthenocarpy, Polyembryony.
    - Significance of seed and fruit formation.

  • Human Reproduction
  • - Male and female reproductive systems.
    - Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary
    - Gametogenesis – spermatogenesis & oogenesis.
    - Menstrual cycle
    - Fertilization, embryo development upto blastocyst formation implantation.
    - Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea).
    - Parturition (Elementary idea).
    - Lactation (Elementary idea.

  • Reproductive health
  • - Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)
    - Birth Control – Need and Methods.
    - Contraception & Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP).
    - Amniocentesis.
    - Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).

    Unit II GENETICS AND EVOLUTION
  • Heredity and variation
  • - Mendelian Inheritance
    - Deviations from Mendelism, incomplete dominance Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood group, pleiotropy.
    - Elementary idea of Polygenic Inheritance
    - Chromosome theory of inheritance
    - Chromosomes and genes.

  • Sex determination
  • - In humans, birds, honey bee.
    - Linkage and crossing over.
    - Sex linked inheritance-Haemophilla, Colour blindness.

  • Medellin disorders in humans
  • - Chromosomal disorders in humans.
    - Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and klinefelter’s syndromes.

  • Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material.
  • - Structure of DNA and RNA
    - DNA packaging
    - DNA replication
    - Central dogma
    - Transcription, genetic code, translation.
    - Gene expression and regulation.
    - Genome and human genome project.
    - DNA finger printing.

  • EVOLUTION
  • Origin of life
  • Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution
  • (Paleontological from comparative anatomy and embryology and molecular evidence)
    - Darwin’s contribution /Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution
    - Hardy – Weinberg’s principle.
  • Mechanism of evolution – Variation (Mutation & Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples drift types of natural slection - Gene flow and genetic
    - Adaptive Radiation
  • Human evolution


  • Unit III BIOLOGY AND HUMAN WELFARE
  • Health and Disease
  • - Basic concepts of immunology – vaccines
    - Pathogens, parasites causing human diseases ( Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm).
    - Cancer, HIV and AIDS.
    - Adolescence drug and alcohol abuse.

  • Insects and human welfare
  • - Silk, Honey, Lac

  • Improvement in food production
  • - Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein.
    - Biofortification, Animal husbandary.

  • Microbes in human welfare
  • - In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and bioferilizers.

    UNIT IV BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS
  • Principles and process of Biotechnology
  • - Genetic engineering (Recombination DNA technology).

  • Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture
  • - Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy.
    - Genetically modified organisms – B+ crops.
    - Biosafety issues.
    - Biopiracy and patents.

    Unit V ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT
  • Meaning of ecology, environment, habitat and niche
  • - Organisms and environment.

  • Population and ecological adaptations
  • - Population Interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism.
    - Population attributes – growth, brith rate and death rate,
    - Age distribution.

  • Ecosystems
  • Patterns, components, energy flow, nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous), decomposition and producitivity
  • - Pyramids of number, biomass, energy.
    - Ecological succession
    - Ecological Services: Carbon fixation, Pollination, Oxygen release

  • Biodiversity and its conservation
  • - Threats to and need for biodiversity conservation.
    - Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book.
    - Biodiversity conservation- biosphere reserves, national parks and sanctuaries.

  • Environmental Issues
  • - Air Pollution and its control
    - Water pollution and its control
    - Agrochemicals and their effects
    - Solid waste management
    - Radioactive waste management
    - Greenhouse effect and global warming
    - Ozone depletion, deforestation.
    - Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.


    Recommended Textbooks:
    1. Biology Part-I, Textbook for Class XII, Published by NCERT
    2. Biology Part-II, Textbook for Class XII, Published by NCERT


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    23.Reproduction in Organisms
    24.Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
    25.Human Reproduction
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