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CBSE Class XI / XII, 2021, 2022, 2023

Download CBSE Class XII (NCERT), 2021, 2022, 2023, Physics Syllabus (13687 Downloads so far)
PHYSICS
COURSE STRUCTURE
CBSE XII (NCERT), 2021, 2022, 2023 (Theory)
One Paper Three Hours Max Marks. 70
Unit Titles Weightage
I Electrostatics 08
II Current Electricity 07
III Magnetic effect of current & Magnetism 08
IV Electromagnetic induction and Alternating Current 08
V Electromagnetic Waves 03
VI Optics 14
VII Dual Nature of Matter 04
VIII Atoms and Nuclei 06
IX Electronic Devices 07
X Communication Systems 05
Total 70


Unit I: Electrostatics
Electric charges:
Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in uniform electric field. Electric flux, statement of Gauss, theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside). Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field. Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor. Van de Graaff generator.

Unit II: Current Electricity
Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel.Elementary idea of secondary cells.Kirchoffs’ laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, meter bridge. Potentiometer-Principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

Unit III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment.Biot-Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere’s law its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron. Force on a current-carrying in uniform magnetic magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter. Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment.Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid. Magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements.Para-dia and ferro-magnetic substances, with examples.Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths.Permanent magnets.

Unit IV: Electromagnetic induction and Alternating Currents
Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s laws, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents.Self and mutual induction.Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only).LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattless current.AC generator and transformer.

Unit V: Electromagnetic waves
Need for displacement current. Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only).Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible ultraviolet, xrays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

Unit VI: Optics
Ray Optics (Geometric Optics):
Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibers, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens-maker’s formula. Newton’s relation: Displacement method to find position of images (conjugate points) Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thinlenses in contact, combination of a lens and a mirror. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.

Scattering of light-blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset. Elementary idea of Raman effect. Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia, hypermetropia, presbyopia and astigmatism) using lenses. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

Wave optics (Physical Optics): Wave front and Huygens principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens, principle interference. Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarization, plane polarized light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarized light and polaroids.

Unit VII: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation
Dual nature of radiation.Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light. Matter waves-waves nature or particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained.

Unit VIII: Atoms & Nuclei
Alpha-particles scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. Continuous and characteristic X-rays.Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones.Radio activity alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties radioactive decay law.
Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission and fusion.

Unit IX: Electronic Devices
Energy bands in solids, conductors, insulators and Semiconductors; semiconductor diode - IV characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and zener diode;
Zener diode as a voltage regulator.Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch.

Unit X: Communication systems
Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium.Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation. Need for modulation. Production and detection of an amplitude-modulated wave.

Recommended Textbooks:
1. Physics Part-I, Textbook for Class XII, Published by NCERT
2. Physics Part-II, Textbook for Class XII, Published by NCERT


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Kinematics
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