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CBSE Class XI / XII, 2021, 2022, 2023

CBSE Class XI (NCERT), 2021, 2022, 2023, Biology eBook

Please click on the following chapters to go to eBooks

UNIT I
DIVERSITY IN THE LIVING WORLD
C H A P T E R 1
Chapter 1: The Living World Click Here for eBook on this chapter
1.1 What is ‘Living’?
1.2 Diversity in the Living World
1.3 Taxonomic Categories
1.4 Taxonomical Aids
1.5 Summary
1.6 Exercises

C H A P T E R 2
Chapter 2: Biological Classification Click Here for eBook on this chapter
2.1 Kingdom Monera
2.2 Kingdom Protista
2.3 Kingdom Fungi
2.4 Kingdom Plantae
2.5 Kingdom Animalia
2.6 Viruses, Viroids and Lichens
2.7 Summary
2.8 Exercises

C H A P T E R 3
Chapter 3: Plant Kingdom Click Here for eBook on this chapter
3.1 Algae
3.2 Bryophytes
3.3 Pteridophytes
3.4 Gymnosperms
3.5 Angiosperms
3.6 Plant Life Cycles and Alternation of Generations
3.7 Summary
3.8 Exercises

C H A P T E R 4
Chapter 4: Animal Kingdom Click Here for eBook on this chapter
4.1 Basis of Classification
4.1.1 Levels of Organisation
4.1.2 Symmetry
4.1.3 Diploblastic and Triploblastic Organisation
4.1.4 Coelom
4.1.5 Segmentation
4.1.6 Notochord
4.2 Classification of Animals
4.2.1 Phylum – Porifera
4.2.2 Phylum – Coelenterata (Cnidaria)
4.2.3 Phylum – Ctenophora
4.2.4 Phylum – Platyhelminthes
4.2.5 Phylum – Aschelminthes
4.2.6 Phylum – Annelida
4.2.7 Phylum – Arthropoda
4.2.8 Phylum – Mollusca
4.2.9 Phylum – Echinodermata
4.2.10 Phylum – Hemichordata
4.2.11 Phylum – Chordata
4.2.11.1 Class – Cyclostomata
4.2.11.2 Class – Chondrichthyes
4.2.11.3 Class – Osteichthyes
4.2.11.4 Class – Amphibia
4.2.11.5 Class – Reptilia
4.2.11.6 Class – Aves
4.2.11.7 Class – Mammalia
4.3 Summary
4.4 Exercises

UNIT II
STRUCTURAL ORGANISATION IN PLANTS AND ANIMALS
C H A P T E R 5
Chapter 5: Morphology of Flowering Plants Click Here for eBook on this chapter
5.1 The Root
5.2 The Stem
5.3 The Leaf
5.4 The Inflorescence
5.5 The Flower
5.6 The Fruit
5.7 The Seed
5.8 Semi-technical Description of a Typical Flowering Plant
5.9 Description of Some Important Families
5.10 Summary
5.11 Exercises

C H A P T E R 6
Chapter 6: Anatomy of Flowering Plants Click Here for eBook on this chapter
6.1 The Tissues
	6.1.1 Meristematic Tissues
	6.1.2 Permanent Tissues
	6.1.2.1 Simple Tissues
	6.1.2.2 Complex Tissues
6.2 The Tissue System
	6.2.1 Epidermal Tissue System
	6.2.2 The Ground Tissue System
	6.2.3 The Vascular Tissue System
6.3 Anatomy of Dicotyledonous and Monocotyledonous Plants
	6.3.1 Dicotyledonous Root
	6.3.2 Monocotyledonous Root
	6.3.3 Dicotyledonous Stem
	6.3.4 Monocotyledonous Stem
	6.3.5 Dorsiventral (Dicotyledonous) Leaf
	6.3.6 Isobilateral (Monocotyledonous) Leaf
6.4 Secondary Growth
	6.4.1 Vascular Cambium
		6.4.1.1 Formation of cambial ring
		6.4.1.2 Activity of the cambial ring
		6.4.1.3 Spring wood and autumn wood
		6.4.1.4 Heartwood and sapwood
	6.4.2 Cork Cambium
	6.4.3 Secondary Growth in Roots
6.5 Summary
6.6 Exercises

C H A P T E R 7
Chapter 7: Structural Organisation in Animals Click Here for eBook on this chapter
7.1 Animal Tissues
7.1.1 Epithelial Tissue
	7.1.2 Connective Tissue
	7.1.3 Muscle Tissue
	7.1.4 Neural Tissue
7.2 Organ and Organ System
7.3 Earthworm
	7.3.1 Morphology
	7.3.2 Anatomy
7.4 Cockroach
	7.4.1 Morphology
	7.4.2 Anatomy
7.5 Frogs
	7.5.1 Morphology
	7.5.2 Anatomy
7.6 Summary
7.7 Exercises

UNIT III
CELL: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS
C H A P T E R 8
Chapter 8: Cell: The Unit of Life Click Here for eBook on this chapter
8.1 What is a Cell?
8.2 Cell Theory
8.3 An Overview of Cell
8.4 Prokaryotic Cells
8.4.1 Cell Envelope and its Modifications
	8.4.2 Ribosomes and Inclusion Bodies
8.5 Eukaryotic Cells
	8.5.1 Cell Membrane
8.5.2 Cell Wall
8.5.3 Endomembrane System
		8.5.3.1 The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
		8.5.3.2 Golgi apparatus
		8.5.3.3 Lysosomes
		8.5.3.4 Vacuoles
		8.5.4 Mitochondria
		8.5.5 Plastids
		8.5.6 Ribosomes
8.5.7 Cytoskeleton
8.5.8 Cilia and Flagella
8.5.9 Centrosome and Centrioles
8.5.10 Nucleus
8.5.11 Microbodies
8.6 Summary
8.7 Exercises

C H A P T E R 9
Chapter 9: Biomolecules Click Here for eBook on this chapter
9.1 How to Analyse Chemical Composition?
9.2 Primary and Secondary Metabolites
9.3 Biomacromolecules
9.4 Proteins
9.5 Polysaccharides
9.6 Nucleic Acids
9.7 Structure of Proteins
9.8 Nature of Bond Linking Monomers in a Polymer
9.9 Dynamic State of Body Constituents - Concept of Metabolism
9.10 Metabolic Basis for Living
9.11 The Living State
9.12 Enzymes
9.13 Summary
9.14 Exercises

C H A P T E R 10
Chapter 10: Cell Cycle and Cell Division Click Here for eBook on this chapter
10.1 Cell Cycle
10.2 M Phase
10.3 Significance of Mitosis
10.4 Meiosis
10.5 Significance of Meiosis
10.6 Summary
10.7 Exercises

UNIT IV
PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
C H A P T E R 11
Chapter 11: Transport in Plants Click Here for eBook on this chapter
11.1 Means of Transport
11.1.1 Diffusion
11.1.2 Facilitated Diffusion
	11.1.2.1 Passive symports and antiports
11.1.3 Active Transport
11.1.4 Comparison of Different Transport Processes
11.2 Plant-Water Relations
	11.2.1 Water Potential
	11.2.2 Osmosis
	11.2.3 Plasmolysis
	11.2.4 Imbibition
11.3 Long Distance Transport of Water
	11.3.1 How do Plants Absorb Water?
	11.3.2 Water Movement up a Plant
	11.3.2.1 Root Pressure
	11.3.2.2 Transpiration pull
11.4 Transpiration
	11.4.1 Transpiration and Photosynthesis – a Compromise
11.5 Uptake and Transport of Mineral Nutrients
	11.5.1 Uptake of Mineral Ions
	11.5.2 Translocation of Mineral Ions
11.6 Phloem Transport: Flow from Source to Sink
	11.6.1 The Pressure Flow or Mass Flow Hypothesis
11.7 Summary
11.8 Exercises

C H A P T E R 12
Chapter 12: Mineral Nutrition Click Here for eBook on this chapter
12.1 Methods to Study the Mineral Requirements of Plants
12.2 Essential Mineral Elements
12.3 Mechanism of Absorption of Elements
12.4 Translocation of Solutes
12.5 Soil as Reservoir of Essential Elements
12.6 Metabolism of Nitrogen
12.7 Summary
12.8 Exercises

C H A P T E R 13
Chapter 13: Photosynthesis in Higher Plants Click Here for eBook on this chapter
13.1 What do we Know?
13.2 Early Experiments
13.3 Where does Photosynthesis take place?
13.4 How many Pigments are involved in Photosynthesis?
13.5 What is Light Reaction?
13.6 The Electron Transport
13.7 Where are the ATP and NADPH Used?
13.8 The C4 Pathway
13.9 Photorespiration
13.10 Factors affecting Photosynthesis
13.11 Summary
13.12 Exercises

C H A P T E R 14
Chapter 14: Respiration in Plants Click Here for eBook on this chapter
14.1 Do Plants Breathe?
14.2 Glycolysis
14.3 Fermentation
14.4 Aerobic Respiration
14.5 The Respiratory Balance Sheet
14.6 Amphibolic Pathway
14.7 Respiratory Quotient
14.8 Summary
14.9 Exercises

C H A P T E R 15
Chapter 15: Plant Growth and Development
15.1 Growth
15.2 Differentiation, Dedifferentiation and Redifferentiation
15.3 Development
15.4 Plant Growth Regulators
15.5 Photoperiodism
15.6 Vernalisation
15.7 Summary
15.8 Exercises

UNIT V
HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
C H A P T E R 16
Chapter 16: Digestion and Absorption Click Here for eBook on this chapter
16.1 Digestive System
16.2 Digestion of Food
16.3 Absorption of Digested Products
16.4 Disorders of Digestive System
16.5 Summary
16.6 Exercises

C H A P T E R 17
Chapter 17: Breathing and Exchange of Gases Click Here for eBook on this chapter
17.1 Respiratory Organs
17.2 Mechanism of Breathing
17.3 Exchange of Gases
17.4 Transport of Gases
17.5 Regulation of Respiration
17.6 Disorders of Respiratory System
17.7 Summary
17.8 Exercises

C H A P T E R 18
Chapter 18: Body Fluids and Circulation Click Here for eBook on this chapter
18.1 Blood
18.2 Lymph (Tissue Fluid)
18.3 Circulatory Pathways
18.4 Double Circulation
18.5 Regulation of Cardiac Activity
18.6 Disorders of Circulatory System
18.7 Summary
18.8 Exercises

C H A P T E R 19
Chapter 19: Excretory Products and their Elimination Click Here for eBook on this chapter
19.1 Human Excretory System
19.2 Urine Formation
19.3 Function of the Tubules
19.4 Mechanism of Concentration of the Filtrate
19.5 Regulation of Kidney Function
19.6 Micturition
19.7 Role of other Organs in Excretion
19.8 Disorders of the Excretory System
19.9 Summary
19.10 Exercises

C H A P T E R 20
Chapter 20: Locomotion and Movement Click Here for eBook on this chapter
20.1 Types of Movement
20.2 Muscle
20.3 Skeletal System
20.4 Joints
20.5 Disorders of Muscular and Skeletal System
20.6 Summary
20.7 Exercises

C H A P T E R 21
Chapter 21: Neural Control and Coordination Click Here for eBook on this chapter
21.1 Neural System
21.2 Human Neural System
21.3 Neuron as Structural and Functional Unit of Neural System
21.4 Central Neural System
21.5 Reflex Action and Reflex Arc
21.6 Sensory Reception and Processing
21.7 Summary
21.8 Exercises

C H A P T E R 22
Chapter 22: Chemical Coordination and Integration Click Here for eBook on this chapter
22.1 Endocrine Glands and Hormones
22.2 Human Endocrine System
22.3 Hormones of Heart, Kidney and Gastrointestinal Tract
22.4 Mechanism of Hormone Action
22.5 Summary
22.6 Exercises

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Cell: Structure and Functions
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Plant Physiology
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13.Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
14.Respiration in Plants
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