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CBSE Class XI / XII, 2021, 2022, 2023

CBSE Class XII (NCERT), 2021, 2022, 2023, Chemistry eBook


Unit 1 The Solid State 1
1.1 General Characteristics of Solid State 2
1.2 Amorphous and Crystalline Solids 2
1.3 Classification of Crystalline Solids 4
1.4 Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells 7
1.5 Number of Atoms in a Unit Cell 10
1.6 Close-Packed Structures 12
1.7 Packing Efficiency 18
1.8 Calculations Involving Unit Cell Dimensions 20
1.9 Imperfections in Solids 22
1.10 Electrical Properties 24
1.11 Magnetic Properties 27

Unit 2 Solutions 33
2.1 Types of Solutions 33
2.2 Expressing Concentration of Solutions 34
2.3 Solubility 37
2.4 Vapour Pressure of Liquid Solutions 41
2.5 Ideal and Non-ideal Solutions 45
2.6 Colligative Properties and Determination of Molar Mass 47
2.7 Abnormal Molar Masses 55

Unit 3 Electrochemistry 63
3.1 Electrochemical Cells 64
3.2 Galvanic Cells 65
3.3 Nernst Equation 68
3.4 Conductance of Electrolytic Solutions 73
3.5 Electrolytic Cells and Electrolysis 83
3.6 Batteries 86
3.7 Fuel Cells 88
3.8 Corrosion 89

Unit 4 Chemical Kinetics 93
4.1 Rate of a Chemical Reaction 94
4.2 Factors Influencing Rate of a Reaction 98
4.3 Integrated Rate Equations 103
4.4 Pseudo First Order Reaction 110
4.5 Temperature Dependence of the Rate of a Reaction 111
4.6 Collision Theory of Chemical Reactions 115

Unit 5 Surface Chemistry 121
5.1 Adsorption 122
5.2 Catalysis 127
5.3 Colloids 134
5.4 Classification of Colloids 134
5.5 Emulsions 143
5.6 Colloids Around Us 143

Unit 6 General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements 147
6.1 Occurrence of Metals 148
6.2 Concentration of Ores 148
6.3 Extraction of Crude Metal from Concentrated Ore 150
6.4 Thermodynamic Principles of Metallurgy 151
6.5 Electrochemical Principles of Metallurgy 157
6.6 Oxidation Reduction 158
6.7 Refining 159
6.8 Uses of Aluminium, Copper, Zinc and Iron 162

Unit 7 The p-Block Elements 165
7.1 Group 15 Elements 165
7.2 Dinitrogen 169
7.3 Ammonia 170
7.4 Oxides of Nitrogen 172
7.5 Nitric Acid 173
7.6 Phosphorus  Allotropic Forms 175
7.7 Phosphine 176
7.8 Phosphorus Halides 177
7.9 Oxoacids of Phosphorus 178
7.10 Group 16 Elements 180
7.11 Dioxygen 184
7.12 Simple Oxides 185
7.13 Ozone 185
7.14 Sulphur  Allotropic Forms 187
7.15 Sulphur Dioxide 188
7.16 Oxoacids of Sulphur 189
7.17 Sulphuric Acid 189
7.18 Group 17 Elements 192
7.19 Chlorine 197
7.20 Hydrogen Chloride 198
7.21 Oxoacids of Halogens 199
7.22 Interhalogen Compounds 200
7.23 Group 18 Elements 202

Unit 8 The d-and f-Block Elements 209
8.1 Position in the Periodic Table 210
8.2 Electronic Configurations of the d-Block Elements 210
8.3 General Properties of the Transition Elements (d-Block) 212
8.4 Some important Compounds of Transition Elements 224
8.5 The Lanthanoids 227
8.6 The Actinoids 230
8.7 Some Applications of d-and f-Block Elements 232

Unit 9 Coordination Compounds 237
9.1 Werner's Theory of Coordination Compounds 237
9.2 Definition of Some Important Terms Pertaining to 240
Coordination Compounds
9.3 Nomenclature of Coordination Compounds 241
9.4 Isomerism in Coordination Compounds 244
9.5 Bonding in Coordination Compounds 247
9.6 Bonding in Metal Carbonyls 254
9.7 Stability of Coordination Compounds 255
9.8 Importance and Applications of Coordination 256
Compounds
Appendices 261
Answers to Some Questions in Exercises 274
Index 278

Unit 10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes 281
10.1 Classification 282
10.2 Nomenclature 283
10.3 Nature of CX Bond 285
10.4 Methods of Preparation 286
10.5 Physical Properties 289
10.6 Chemical Reactions 291
10.7 Polyhalogen Compounds 308

Unit 11 Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers 315
11.1 Classification 316
11.2 Nomenclature 317
11.3 Structures of Functional Groups 320
11.4 Alcohols and Phenols 321
11.5 Some Commercially Important Alcohols 336
11.6 Ethers 337

Unit 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 349
12.1 Nomenclature and Structure of Carbonyl Group 350
12.2 Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones 353
12.3 Physical Properties 357
12.4 Chemical Reactions 358
12.5 Uses of Aldehydes and Ketones 365
12.6 Nomenclature and Structure of Carboxyl Group 366
12.7 Methods of Preparation of Carboxylic Acids 367
12.8 Physical Properties 371
12.9 Chemical Reactions 371
12.10 Uses of Carboxylic Acids 376


Unit 13 Amines 381
13.1 Structure of Amines 381
13.2 Classification 382
13.3 Nomenclature 382
13.4 Preparation of Amines 384
13.5 Physical Properties 387
13.6 Chemical Reactions 388
13.7 Method of Preparation of Diazonium Salts 396
13.8 Physical Properties 397
13.9 Chemical Reactions 397
13.10 Importance of Diazonium Salts in Synthesis of 398
Aromatic Compounds

Unit 14 Biomolecules 403
14.1 Carbohydrates 403
14.2 Proteins 412
14.3 Enzymes 417
14.4 Vitamins 417
14.5 Nucleic Acids 419

Unit 15 Polymers 425
15.1 Classification of Polymers 426
15.2 Types of Polymerisation 428
15.3 Molecular Mass of Polymers 435
15.4 Biodegradable Polymers 435
15.5 Polymers of Commercial Importance 436

Unit 16 Chemistry in Everyday Life 439
16.1 Drugs and their Classification 439
16.2 Drug-Target Interaction 440
16.3 Therapeutic Action of Different Classes of Drugs 443
16.4 Chemicals in Food 449
16.5 Cleansing Agents 450
Answers to Some Questions in Exercises 456
Index 461
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